Author Guidelines

 

Submission of Manuscripts

All manuscripts must be submitted on-line through the website https://www.frontierjournals.com. First time users will have to register at this site. Registration is free but mandatory. Registered authors can keep track of their articles after logging into the site using their user name and password. If you experience any problems, please contact the editorial office by e-mail at editorial@frontierjournals.com. The submitted manuscripts that are not as per the "Instructions to Authors" would be returned to the authors for technical correction, before they undergo editorial/ Peer-review.

Preparation of Manuscripts

Manuscripts which must be prepared in accordance with specific requirements are summarized below. Before submitting a manuscript, contributors are requested to check for the latest instructions available at Journal site. Frontier Journals only accept manuscripts written in American English Language only.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guidelines for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

  • Contact No.
  • E-mail address
  • Full postal address Signed by all contributors
  • Source of funding mentioned
  • Conflicts of interest disclosed by Authors

Manuscript

  • Include keywords
  • Introduction of 75-100 words
  • Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS)

Manuscript Presentation and Format

  • Double spacing, Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides, Page numbers included at bottom of the page.
  • Title page contains all the desired information, Running title provided (not more than 50 characters). Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript. An Abstract provided (structured abstract of 250 words for original articles, unstructured abstracts of about 150 words for all other manuscripts excluding letters to the Editor).
  • The references cited in the text should be after punctuation marks, in superscript with square bracket. References according to the Journal's instructions, punctuation marks checked.
  • Send the article file without 'Track Changes' Language and grammar, Uniformly American English.
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure. Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out. Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out.
  • Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors.
  • If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer's name and address (city and state/country).
  • Species names should be in italics .
  • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text, Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided. Figures, Table and Figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman) All figures (include relevant captions).
  • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes).
  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided.
  • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print, Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written). Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words).
  • Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken), Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided. Write the full term for each abbreviation used in the table as a footnote essay and of good quality (color).

Manuscript Submission Type

Article Structure

Subdivision - Numbered Sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections.

Essential title page information

  • Title: Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
  • Author Names and Affiliations: Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. The articles generally submitted should not have more than six authors. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
  • Corresponding Author: Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address and telephone are given and that contact details are kept up to date by the Corresponding Author.
  • Present / Permanent Address: If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present Address' (or 'Permanent Address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Abstract:

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. All the contents of the abstract should be in one paragraph and should be not be divided into several parts.

Graphical Abstract:

Authors must supply a graphical abstract at the time the paper is submitted. The abstract should summarize the contents of the paper in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership and for compilation of databases. The graphical abstract is posted online only. Carefully drawn figures that serve to illustrate the theme of the paper are desired. Authors may also provide appropriate text, not exceeding 30 words. The content of the graphical abstract will be typeset and should be kept within an area of 5 cm by 17 cm (189 x 642 pixels), images should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi and line art should be between 1000 dpi and 1200 dpi. Authors must supply the graphic separately as an electronic file. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files.

Keywords:

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts.

Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Introduction:

State the purpose and summarize the rationale for the study or observation and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and Methods:

Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the 'Materials and Methods' section. The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable.

Studies in Humans and Animals :

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for the experimentation with human subjects. Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA & OECD.

Results and Discussion :

A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Results should be clear and concise and Discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included. Include summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body.

  • Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material. Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable. Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.
  • Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table by using appropriate symbols. The tables along with their number should be cited at the relevant place in the text. Upload the images in JPEG format. The file size should be within 1 Mb in size while uploading. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied. If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.

Statistics:

Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. Use upper italics (P 0.048). For all P values include the exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001. Mean differences in continuous variables, proportions in categorical variables and relative risks including odds ratios and hazard ratios should be accompanied by their confidence intervals. For sample size, the "n" is an italicized lower case letter, with a space on either side: n = 36. Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Conclusions:

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Acknowledgements:

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Funding Sources Role:

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source (s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding. If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence that this research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Footnotes:

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Do not include footnotes in the reference list.

References

Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and Vice Versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetical order). About 80 references can be included as maximum limit and a minimum of 20 references. Use the style of the examples below:

[1] Smolensky MH ,Portaluppi F, Manfredini R, et al. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: cardiac, vascular, and respiratory diseases, conditions, and syndromes. Sleep Med Rev 2015; 21:3-11 .

Declaration of interest:

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Cross ref Similarity Check.

Changes to Authorship:

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended.

Copyright:

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'. Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Referees:

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Author Inquiries

Support Centre:

Visit the Support Center of Frontier Journals to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.

Track your Manuscript:

You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published via Manuscript Tracking Status.