Publication Ethics & Policy


Frontier Publications not only serve the purpose of simple communication but also is a building block in the development of scientific knowledge, as evident from the quality and impact of research work of it's authors. Frontier Journals adopt publication policies to ensure that ethical and responsible research is published, and that all necessary consents and approvals have been obtained from authors to publish their work. These Ethical Guidelines and policies are laid down for the parties involved in the act of publishing: authors,editors,peer-reviewers, publishers and the society. Ethical standards for scholarly Journal publication are maintained by the Journal Editorial Panel to ensure high-Quality Scientific Publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that the scientific community receives the credit for their novel ideas.

Frontier Publications are a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and abides by its Code of Conduct and aims to adhere to its Best Practice Guidelines as per the ethics and policies of the Journal. The Editors are provided with Cross ref Similarity check reports for all submissions to the editorial board.The Publishers play a major role in addressing potential cases of fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, image manipulation, unethical research, biased reporting, authorship abuse, redundant or duplicate publication, and undeclared conflicts of interest.

Editor of the Journal is solely and independently responsible for the acceptance or rejection of articles submitted for assessment or Peer-review process.


Frontier Journals are fully peer-reviewed by independent academic editors and reviewers. The Publications publishes articles that have been approved by highly qualified researchers with expertise in a field most appropriate for the article.

All Manuscripts for publication are subject to Peer-review and are expected to meet standards of Academic excellence. If approved by the editor, submissions will be considered by Peer-reviewers, whose identities will remain anonymous to the authors. The Journal Editors ensure that the Peer-review process is fair, unbiased, timely. They play a fair role with regards to race, gender, religious belief, ethnic origin, community, citizenship, political influence of the author while evaluating the manuscript. After you submit, a member of the Editorial Board will be appointed as Handling Editor for your manuscript. This selection is based on the Editors' availability and suitability, taking into account potential conflicts of interest.

Upon receiving a Manuscript, the Editor has the option to reject it outright. This may happen if it is not a good fit for the journal or of insufficient quality. Providing the Editor is satisfied, they will initiate the peer review process. The Editor then appoints a number of external reviewers. Providing they accept the request to review, the reviewers will read and assess the Manuscript. They will then make one of the following recommendations:

  • Publish Unaltered
  • Consider after Minor Changes
  • Consider after Major Changes
  • Reject

Using the submitted reviews, the Editor is then able to make a final recommendation on the manuscript. A manuscript must be rejected if the majority of the reviewers recommend doing so. Based on the recommendation made by the reviewers, further steps may be taken as necessary:

Publish Unaltered: The manuscript will receive a further check from the Journal's Editorial Team for consistency. Once complete, the author will be notified of the acceptance of their submitted manuscript.

Consider after Minor Changes: The author will receive feedback and will be asked to submit an amended version addressing the reviewers' concerns. The Editor will check the amended manuscript and ensure that the concerns have been addressed. If satisfied, the Editor can accept the manuscript.

Consider after Major Changes: The author will receive feedback and will be asked to submit an amended version addressing the reviewers' concerns. The amended manuscript will be sent to the original reviewers to be reassessed. The Editor will then make a recommendation and may ask for further amendments.

Reject: The manuscript is immediately rejected.

Providing a manuscript is accepted for publication, it will be listed immediately in the Articles in Press section of the journal's information page until the layout and proofing of the article is completed.


All Journals published by Frontier Publications are committed to publication only original research work that has neither been published elsewhere, nor is under review elsewhere. Frontier Publishers as a participant of Cross Check uses the i Thenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Manuscripts that are found to have been plagiarized from a manuscript by other authors, whether published or unpublished, will incur plagiarism sanctions. The Journal publishers use Similarity Check service from Cross Ref to evaluate text reuse in manuscripts during review.


Manuscripts that are found to have been published elsewhere, or to be under review elsewhere, will incur duplicate submission/publication sanctions. If authors have used their own previously published work, or work that is currently under review, as the basis for a submitted manuscript, they are required to cite the previous work and indicate how their submitted manuscript offers novel contributions beyond those of the previous work.


Withdrawal or removal of articles is strongly discouraged. This policy is a standard industry practice as described by the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers Guidelines on Preserving the Record of Science. The practice of removal, deletion, or obscuring of an article or part of an article should be limited to circumstances such as:

  • Legal infringements, defamation, or other legal limitations; or
  • False or inaccurate data, especially those that if acted upon could pose a serious health risk.

Even in these circumstances, a retraction statement must still be published to ensure that bibliographic information about the removed article is retained for the scientific record, and an explanation must be given about the circumstances of removal or withdrawal.


Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author's work, or to articles published in a particular journal, will incur citation manipulation sanctions.


Submitted manuscripts that are found to have either fabricated or falsified experimental results, including the manipulation of images, will incur data fabrication and falsification sanctions.

  • Specific features within an image should not be enhanced, obscured, removed, moved, or introduced.
  • Original unprocessed images must be provided by authors should any indication of enhancement be identified. It may be helpful for journals to suggest that original unprocessed images should be submitted alongside any images that have been processed.
  • Adjustments to brightness or contrast are only acceptable if they apply equally across the entire image and are applied equally to controls, and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the information originally captured.
  • Excessive manipulations, such as processing to emphasize one region in the image at the expense of others, are inappropriate, as is emphasizing experimental data relative to the control.
  • Nonlinear adjustments or deleting portions of a recording must be disclosed in a figure legend.
  • Constructing figures from different gels, fields, exposures, and experimental series is discouraged. When this is necessary the component parts of composite images should be indicated by dividing lines clearly demarcated in the figure, and described in the legend.


Research involving animals should be conducted with the same rigor as research in humans. Journals can encourage authors to implement the 3Rs principles: "The 3Rs are a widely accepted ethical framework for conducting scientific experiments using animals humanely :

  • Replacement - Use of Non-Animal methods;
  • Reduction - Methods which reduce the number of Animals used;
  • Refinement - Methods which improve Animal welfare.

Editors and Reviewers follow the published ethical guidelines laid by the International Council for Laboratory Animal Sciences and encourage authors to adhere to animal research reporting standards, for example the ARRIVE reporting guidelines, which describe the details, journals should require from authors regarding:

  • Study design and statistical analysis.
  • Experimental procedures.
  • Experimental animals.
  • Housing and Animal husbandry.


Authors should assure that Clinical Trial registration numbers should be included in all papers that report their results. Clinical trials should be prospectively registered in a publicly accessible database and should include the name of the trial register at the end of your abstract. If the trial is not registered, or was registered retrospectively explanation should be provided. the reasons for this."

The Editorial board also confirms from the authors whether the ethical and legal approval was obtained prior to the start of the study, and state the name of the body giving the approval.

  • Authors should state whether experiments were performed in accordance with relevant institutional and national
  • guidelines and regulations.
  • Authors should cite compliance with the Research councils in their country on Care and use of Animals.
  • Authors have to describe in their articles how discomfort, distress, and pain were avoided and minimized, and to confirm that animals did not suffer unnecessarily at any stage of an experiment.

Editors may request that reviewers comment on the standards of experimental reporting, experimental design, or any other aspects of the study reported that may cause concern. If concerns are raised or clarifications are needed, they may need to request evidence of ethical research approval or question authors.


The Editorial Journal Board ensures corresponding authors to confirm they have received written authorization from all their co-authors for publication of the article and adheres to the Copyright Transfer and Licence Agreements.

  • Journal 's Editorial board makes sure that prior to submitting the article, all authors agree for the order in which their names will be listed in their Manuscript.
  • Journals should ask the Corresponding Author to ensure that all the Journal's administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship, Ethics Committee Approval, Clinical Trial registration documentation, and gathering conflict of interest forms and statements, are properly completed.
  • Journal Editorial Board considers sending copies of all correspondence with the Corresponding Author to all listed authors and thereby ensure as far as possible that emails are not returned because of invalid email addresses.
  • The board also encourages authors to use tools that remove potential ambiguity around author names.

The Authors who meet the following criteria are selected for consideration of Authorship:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work.
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
  3. Final approval of the version to be published and,
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All listed authors must have made a significant scientific contribution to the research in the manuscript and approved all its claims. It is important to list everyone who made a significant scientific contribution, including students and laboratory technicians.


The Journal editors protect the confidentiality of all the materials submitted to the journal, all communications with reviewers, unless otherwise agreed with the relevant authors and reviewers. Unpublished material disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in editors own research without the written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.


Conflicts of Interest (COIs, also known as 'Competing Interests') occur when issues outside research could be reasonably perceived to affect the neutrality or objectivity of the work or its assessment. Potential conflicts of interest must be declared-whether or not they actually had an influence-to allow informed decisions. In most cases, this declaration will not stop work from being published nor will it always prevent someone from being involved in a review process.If unsure, declare a potential interest or discuss with the editorial office. Undeclared interests may incur sanctions. Submissions with undeclared conflicts that are later revealed may be rejected. Published articles may need to be re-assessed, have a corrigendum published, or in serious cases be retracted.

Conflicts include the following:

Financial: Funding and other payments, goods and services received or expected by the authors relating to the subject of the work or from an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work.

Affiliations: Being employed by, on the advisory board for, or a member of an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work.

Intellectual property : Patents or Trademarks owned by someone or their organization.

Personal: Friends, Family, relationships, and other close personal connections.

Ideology: Beliefs or activism, for example, political or religious, relevant to the work.

Academic: Competitors or someone whose work is critiqued


The Editors work to safeguard the integrity of the publication record.

  • Authors must declare all potential interests in a 'Conflicts of interest' section, which should explain why the interest may be a conflict. If there are none, the authors should state "The author(s) declare(s) that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper." Submitting authors are responsible for coauthors declaring their interests.
  • Authors must declare current or recent funding (including article processing charges) and other payments, goods or services that might influence the work. All funding, whether a conflict or not, must be declared in the 'Acknowledgments'.
  • The involvement of anyone other than the authors who: 1) Has an interest in the outcome of the work; 2) Is affiliated to an organization with such an interest; or 3) Was employed or paid by a funder, in the commissioning, conception, planning, design, conduct, or analysis of the work, the preparation or editing of the manuscript, or the decision to publish must be declared.
  • Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and reviewers and included in the published article.

Editors and reviewers should decline to be involved with a submission when they

  1. Have a recent publication or current submission with any author
  2. Share or recently shared an affiliation with any author
  3. Collaborate or recently collaborated with any author
  4. Have a close personal connection to any author
  5. Have a financial interest in the subject of the work
  6. Feel unable to be objective

Reviewers must declare any remaining interests in the 'Confidential' section of the review form, which will be considered by the editor. Editors and reviewers must declare if they have previously discussed the manuscript with the authors.


In the event that there are documented violations of any of the above mentioned Publication Ethics and policies in any journal, regardless of whether or not the violations occurred in a journal published by Frontier Publications, the following sanctions will be applied:

  • Immediate rejection of the infringing manuscript
  • Immediate rejection of every other manuscript submitted to any journal published by Frontier Publications by any of the authors of the infringing manuscript
  • Prohibition against all of the authors for any new submissions to any journal published by Frontier Publications, either individually or in combination with other authors of the infringing manuscript, as well as in combination with any other authors. This prohibition will be imposed for a minimum period of 3 years.
  • Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of any journal published by Frontier Publications.

In cases where the violations of the above policies are found to be particularly egregious, the publisher reserves the right to impose additional sanctions beyond those described above.